Welcome to the EAZA RMG resources page on which you can find information on the gestation lengths of species in our database, ovulation in mammals, useful references, and important product protocols. Please contact if there is any information not on this page that you would like to have. 


Action plan 2021-2025

Read our action plan here


Research priorities

Information on our research priorities can be found here.  


Reseach proposal form

To access the data in the Contraception Database, please complete the Reseach Proposal Form and email it to The document will be reviewed by the EAZA RMG prior to project approval. 


Statement on data ownership

The EAZA RMG and AZA RMC statement on data ownership can be found here


User manual

  • Full (42 pages)

You can find a copy of our user manual here

  • Short version (6 pages)

English version

German version

Spanish version


Product protocols

You can find useful product protocols on our documents page


Useful references

You can find a useful list of references on wildlife contraception, contraception and population management, and species specific information on reproductive physiology and contraception here


Reproduction in Carnivores cheat sheet

Want to know more about the reproductive physiology of carnivores? Here is a useful summary!

Gestation length

Interested in knowing the gestation length of animals in your care? You can find a list of gestation lengths for species in our database here.


Ovulation in mammals

Ovulation is the process in which a mature egg is released from the ovaries in order to be fertilised by sperm. In most mammals, females will be one of two types of ovulators: spontaneous or induced. Spontaneous ovulation occurs independently of a copulatory stimulus and is controlled by cyclical fluctuations of various hormones. 

 In females where ovulation is induced, a female will ovulate due to an externally derived stimulus which may come during, or just before mating. This stimulus may be due to physical intromission, sperm, or certain pheromones. In species that experience copulatory-induced ovulation it is ill advised to use any contraception that allows the female to ovulate without a resulting pregnancy due to the risk of pseudopregnancy. Exposure to prolonged periods of circulating progestogens associated with pseudopegnancy increase the risk of developing endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra which could impair fertility for life. Therefore it is contraindicated to use progestogen based contraception in induced ovulators, vasectomise males, or to separate the sexes.

Please see below for a list of induced ovulators. If you are not sure whether an animal that you would like to treat is an induced ovulator or not, please contact the EAZA RMG for more information at

Induced ovulators:

  • All camelidae
  • All insectivora
  • All lagomorpha
  • Ferrets
  • Raccoons
  • Some felidae
  • Island fox (Urocyon littoralis)
  • Some ursidae (possibly American black bears, Ursus americanus)


Semi-induced ovulators:

  • Some rhino species e.g. the Sumatran rhinoceros, Diccerorhinus sumatrensis